Minor signs, on the other hand, are cultural and social indicators that signal the approach of the end times. These ten signs can be observed by both Muslims and non-Muslims, reflecting the moral decline and spiritual deterioration in society. In some instances, non muslims led the identification of these signs, further emphasizing their universal nature.

The significance of the Book of Deeds in Islamic eschatology cannot be overstated, as

it contains a record of an individual’s actions on earth and will be utilized to decide their destiny on Judgment Day.


The Role of Prophet Muhammad

As the last messenger of God and leader of the Islamic state, Prophet Muhammad played a pivotal role in relaying divine guidance to the Muslim world. His successors continued to govern after him, and Shi’a Muslims place particular emphasis on the Mahdi, who is believed to be named Muhammad. Sahih Muslim, one of the sources that provide information about the end times, offers insights into his prophecies regarding the end times, such as the prevalence of wealth and the Muslim conquest of various lands.

One of the Hadiths, or sayings of Prophet Muhammad concerning the end times, is narrated by Abu Hurayrah. The Prophet stated, “By the One in whose hand is my soul, this world will not end until a day comes…” This Hadith, originating from the Arabian Peninsula, is also related to the prophecy of Muslims conquering Constantinople. Through his teachings, Prophet Muhammad laid the foundation for Islamic eschatology, providing believers with a roadmap to navigate the trials and tribulations of the end times.

The Concept of Major and Minor Signs

The major and minor signs in Islamic eschatology serve as indicators of the approaching apocalypse. Major signs are cataclysmic events, while minor s

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